SOCIOECONOMIC DISPARITIES IN HEALTH—PATHWAYS AND POLICIES
Socioeconomic status and disparity in this regard tend to influence a number of health consciousness aspects for instance; contact with the environments, health care and health behavioral patterns. Low immunity and life expectancy being major health indicators, have been reported as a consequence of continual stress happened to cause by lower SES. Major components that SES encompasses are occupation, income and education and unequal provision of aforementioned would worsen the overall health statistics and disorder figures. There is an immense need of reforms that aid reduce discrimination and obviously those reforms need to be initiated and should function through proper effective channels that would reciprocate the health issues. As a concern lessons are adapted from Acheson Commission in England; reducing health disparities.
Epidemiologists report that behind certain ailments certain people have, apart from the heredity, are the financial constraints influencing negatively their social behavior, verbal, non-verbal, tend to stay isolated, an increased crime rate in the state and low morale.
COMPONENTS OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS:
As mentioned earlier, the primary cause for health disparity is socioeconomic disparity that is mainly measured in terms of resource provisions underlying education, income and occupation. With each of these cases, comes different intervention policies.
Career progression or mentioning clearly, earning potential solely depends upon the literacy rate in most of the countries. Acquisition of jobs, positions and promotion plus the employment benefits are all encircled with the years of schooling one has attended. Not to forget, educated family members are a pride, when one has got it, one can flaunt it. Firstly, educated individuals have more access to health resources, secondly they are themselves aware of the general hygiene that shape the health patterns of a family. So, in most cases, it can be a trigger! While years at school attended don’t merely come under the discussion, educational and professional experiences in that regard also play a contemporary role. Significant benefits can be derived if intervention takes place and so would be evident in many aspects, education being responsible for different social psychologies at the individual and national level.
There is one more important aspect, people who don’t have to keep running for money can enjoy life and spend time with the family, children’s grades if taken into consideration are relatively better as compared to the students who have less-educated parents or busy ones.
Evidently, income as well encompasses educational attainment, acceptance in society and status. Seemingly, the correlation of health and income and their interdependence is more evident in low-income groups. As income is the monetary medium to providing resources, it does tend to reflect better social values and a prominent lifestyle. Being idealistic, there is depression and tension within families which can afford comfort and luxury and so stress levels are quite low. Relating to the fact that when there is more income there is more consumption and vice-versa. It is yet not necessary to relate it to economic terms however, it is understandable that with more income people have mandatory power and affordability to combat health issues and concerns. Children from low-income groups fear to face as teenagers the peer-pressure which is often caused by non-availability of resources as compared to their wealthier friends. This also introduces an atmosphere of tension, hatred, inferiority complex within the family.
It’s not only about the sources of revenue. It’s about whether one has availability of those sources or not. Undoubtedly, people with satisfactory revenue sources would have competent health resources as compared with the ones with less or none at all. However, it isn’t solely about being employed or jobless or whatever the case may be, occupation tends to play a more dramatic role. Apart of figures, it has its play with the psychology, the stereotypes about certain professions, occupations and revenue sources can be a cause of embarrassment for some while others enjoy the positive entitlement. Others causes include lank in confidence, insecurity of job loss or future-unemployment. These fears can hit one during overall times of recession or economic crisis.
It would not be impractical to exemplify the situation stating that there are comparatively more children in poor families as the members first of all aren’t well aware and conscious, secondly can’t afford recreation and thirdly, hope for children to become the bread-winners with them. One of the adverse effects is that these families can’t afford food and healthcare and consequently with the failure to provide children with necessary resources, the vicious cycle of health disparity never accepts a full stop.
While government takes the necessary control, socioeconomic status adverse effects can be, to an extent, lessened in society in terms of educational campaigns. This could be done by individuals, working teams offering voluntary services as well as by NGOs. Through community projects, short presentations, posters and videos, complexes related to these key factors can be demonstrated and easily dealt with for healthy solutions.
· Children and teenagers -They can be taught social values through counselling where they break the ice and begin discussing about the constraints. This way when they accept those constraints, they are better-off at self-assessment and self-help. On a broader level, students and teenagers of a higher age group can be taught about self-financing shortcuts and light jobs they could do to sustain their daily expenses.
· Adults- Campaigns and workshops can be held where they are encouraged through different tools and relevant/general techniques applicable at work should be fostered. This would help them understand that pressure at work could be handled and things would go positive if problems are discussed, reflected, evaluated and then solved.
· Olderly- While ebveryone is busy at home, these elderly people from societies should be grouped for community projects where they are gain engaged with sort-of projects, which provides them self-satisfaction. Part of those projects could be storytelling to children, gardening few important crops and writing editorials and poems which would bring them money too.
US government has been taking considerable steps in order to balance the figures of resource provision and counter their unequal distribution. One out of those policies was the introduction of progressive income tax; 1913. Taxes on capital gains had been decreased, mortgage and education budget figures also got affected. This policy reflected an explicit effect on the economics of the country.
A dramatic decline in health conditions of poor families was evident ever since the US stipend rate had been decreasing. This suggests that the US political environment was more sensitive to changes in these rates.
While the convention is that low-educated get less income and highly-qualified are then highly paid. However, injecting the policy factors where poor working class is given benefit would be the best shot in time. Instantly, cutting down on interest rates encouraged economic expansion. New business gained confidence and in-turn increased the employment plus the wage rates.
Education, income and occupation though are the assumed key factors determining the widening and worsening the disparity, they should be critically worked upon if actual results are required. They tend to act indirectly.
For example the working hours of parents would generally the children at home, who are probably getting neglected in race of earning money. A rise in asthmatic cases has so been reported.
SES AND HEALTHCARE:
Less educated individuals are entitled to less health benefits, insurance schemes etc. they do not receive satisfactory health examinations and treatments as the people on other hand do. While people exceeding age of 60-65 receive the health benefits given by the state, adults near 39-40 are not eligible for that and most of the ailments hit people in the mentioned age.
SES AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR:
As mentioned earlier in the content, SES influences the behavioral patterns of people. For example, individuals belonging to upper class are generally polite and practice more ethical values as compared to the ones who are deprived of the economic resources and so liberate their frustration in every aspect. Cases have been reported where children are victim to different psychological disorders because of the financial constraints at home. Educational psychologists report that there is higher number of students who tend to easily get distracted from their studies and always act absent-minded. These students apparently have less friends and are not social.
Another example would be of smoking. However, wealthy families can afford more drugs, people from low-income groups are found to have involved in these cases as a part of their turmoil with finances at home. When they aren’t able to make ends meet and have to pay for the expenses through their nose, they start getting isolated and involved with these activities to counter the psychological unrest and stress. In addition to this, wealthy are more responsive towards rehabilitation steps and awareness campaigns as compared to the poor. It is then considerably easier for rich to quit consumption of tobacco and other drugs.
POLICIES AND PRIORITIES:
In order to combat the health disparity, gainful engagement in terms of policy making is to be done. The effots be considerate and covering the maximum parts of the target, aggrieved. Even paying much attention to these concerns, US government has unfortunately failed to make noticeable improvement. For that, a national policy is required to counter these problems from the grass root level. Steps need to be made to provide access to the uninsured and treatment to the insured ones.
NEED FOR COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS:
Reshaping the policies entirely pertaining to cost benefit analysis would emphasize econimc efficiency and social justice. What is always neglected is the consideration of firstly, promotion of health and secondly provision of other resources like education which are ultimately the determinants of this health disparity under discussion. Id expenditures are taken into observation, then failure of policy implementation would apparently mean that these reforms are expensive, easier said than done. The basic objective should be to equalize resources and and more importantly reduce health disparity and provision of health benefits.
CHALLENGE IN EACH DOMAIN:
Elimination of social and economic disparity required conscientious efforts in policy making, which should obviously not be dealth like a gamble or conducted like an experiment. Government intervention in private sector, highly resisted by employers, would bear fruits. Assessing the situations on a micro-level would prove itself to be worthy, if done with precision and honesty. Redistribution of resources, revision in public policy and stuff like that have always been a point of debate. Country’s politics is hardly sensitive to educational uplift of citizens however, it doesn’t mean that it would not face opposition. Reforms for improvement in health of women and children has always been prioritized by the Acheson Commission to combat the inequality in health care and status.
Policies that foster child development, construction of more schooling facilities tend to result in an effective way demonstrating lower crime rates and obviously an increase in life expectancy. These policies have always been acceptable hands on.
Social behavior should not be taken into account as just under the head of lifestyle choice. It would simply mean that the pots are calling kettle black, bearing no fruit out of simply criticizing the victim for that. Instead, disparities in relation to environmental exposure and awareness should be clearly addressed and cleverly dealt.
Behavioral patterns such as consumption of drugs and intake of unhealthy diet, lack of personal hygiene consciousness and taking exercise as daunting, are often linked to being deprived of resources. Exposure and arguments, expression of ideas pertaining to aforementioned issues would promote equal provision of resources, on a micro and macro level.
Hopefully, taking the mentioned steps would eliminate involvement in all types of transgressions and would alter behavior patterns to a level.
Many had condemned that Acheson Commission does not set clear and constructive priorities with boundaries. However, a lot of ways can be taken to read the targets preset.
The purpose of providing discussed aspects was to ensure that there gainful and fruit-bearing conscientious efforts are required to be taken in order to narrow the distance unequal distribution of resources and bone of contention, health resources.
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